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The Development Of Test Tube Baby
Posted on March 16, 2012 by mark_taylor
Test Tube Baby
The Test Tube Baby is the latest development in medical science. It has opened up possibilities of conception to a number of women who ordinarily would not have been able to achieve motherhood. The method is a boon to women whose Fallopian tubes are not functioning. If the Fallopian tubes are defective, but the uterus is normal, and the sperm count of the husband is satisfactory, this procedure is adopted.
Device For Test Tube Baby
A special device, the Laparoscope for test tube baby mother, is used to extract the ovum from the ovary of the woman. This is then placed in a test tube, and allowed to be fertilized by the husbands sperm. The fertilized ovum is allowed to develop in the test tube up to a certain stage, and then implanted in the uterus of the woman.
PROCESS FOR TEST TUBE BABY
In other words, the processes normally taking place in the Fallopian tubes of a woman are carried out artificially in a test tube. That is why the process is referred to as test tube fertilization, and the baby is called a test tube baby, though most of its development takes place in the normal manner in the uterus. Highly satisfactory results have been obtained in a number of cases for test tube baby.
Son Or DaughterAs We Wish? Secrets Of Pregnancy
Posted on March 15, 2012 by mark_taylor
Pregnancy- Son Or DaughterAs We Wish?
Whether a pregnant woman will give birth to a boy or a girl is determined by the type of sperm cell which has fertilized the ovum. Boys develop from ova fertilized by .sperm cells carrying the Y chromosome. Such sperm cells are known as endosperms. The sperm cells carrying X chromosomes, which result in the development of girls, are known as gymnosperms. Period of maximum probability or conception: The unfertilized egg, or ovum as it is called, lives for about 48 hours after it has been released from the ovary, and has entered the tube leading to the uterus, viz. the Fallopian tube.
Generally, the ovum gets fertilized within a day of its release. Thus, fertilization and hence conception its most probable within 12 to 24 hours of ovulation, or the release of the ovum. Time of release of the ovum: If the day of the commencement of the menstrual flow is counted as the first day, ovulation takes place on the 13th to the 17th day, and most frequently on the 14th day. The release of the ovum is accompanied by a rise in body temperature by about 1o Fahrenheit (about 0.56 Celsius), which persists right up to the next menstruation. (One should not forget that washing the mouth, having breakfast, bathing; etc., because slight variations in temperature.) By taking the temperature of a woman with a thermometer every day before she gets up in the morning, the time of ovulation can be determined fairly accurately.
The ovum is released exactly 14 days before the next menstruation, but the interval between the previous menstruation and the release of the ovum is not so dependably regular.
[A] Those who want a son should take the following measures:
(1) Time your intercourse to coincide as closely as possible with the ovulation. Andros perms are slightly faster than the gymnosperms, and so are likely to reach the ovum earlier.
(2) The woman should have a vaginal douche with a large glassful of water containing two spoonfuls of baking soda. The alkaline environment so created is highly favorable to the endosperms.
(3) Stop having intercourse from the beginning of a menstrual period till the favorable time as : indicated in (1) above. This will ensure that no gymnosperms surviving from an earlier intercourse will reach the ovum before the endosperms have had their chance.
[B] Those who want a girl from pregnancy should take the following measures:
(1) You must time your intercourse to proceed the time of ovulation by two to three days, after which you must avoid having intercourse. The gymnosperms are hardier and survive longer in the genital system and so they are likely to be the only ones available for fertilization when ovulation takes place. This increases the probability of having a daughter.
(2) A douche of water containing vinegar (acetic acid) or any other sour substance will increase the probability of having a daughter. The reason is that an acidic environment has an unfavorable effect on the activity and motility of the endosperms, whereas the gymnosperms are not affected to such an extent. They will therefore get a better opportunity to fertilize the ovum.
(3) Have more frequent intercourses from the beginning of the menstrual cycle to the time indicated in (1) above. Frequent ejaculations decrease the number of sperms released at each ejaculation, and the resulting decreased sperm count increases the probability of having a daughter. The proportion of gymnosperms is also likely to be higher under these conditions.
For increasing the probability of having a son or a daughter according to your wishes, you must understand both the above sections [A] and [B] thoroughly, so that you can arrange your schedules and choose the douches properly. It must be noted that the above measures merely increase the probability of having a son or a daughter, and are by no means infallible. IS IT A BOY OR A GIRL? The sex of the baby is determined fight at the time of conception. But for ascertaining whether it is a boy or a girl, we have to wait for some time. The available tests do not indicate the sex of the baby during the first eight weeks or so.
At the end of two months, cells called chorines can be taken for examination by a procedure known as chorionic biopsy. In this test, which is carried out after an ultrasound scan (Sonography), a specially designed biopsy needle is used to abstract the necessary sample from the chorine frundosm and tested in a laboratory. This will reveal the sex of the baby, and also any developmental defects or malformations in the baby. In the test known as amniocentesis, which can be performed in the 14th to the 18th week of pregnancy, amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the uterus by a syringe, and the cells discarded from the skin of the baby which are floating in the fluid are subjected to various tests. These also reveal the sex of the baby.
After the fifth month of pregnancy, Sonography or ultrasound scan can be used to examine the image of the baby formed on a television-like screen by the reflection of the sound waves. As the mate genitals can be discerned dearly during this examination,.
Advantages of Chronic Biopsy
* This is a very simple procedure.
* This test can give the required information six weeks earlier than amniocentesis.
* It saves much mental and social distress.
* Absolute confidentiality can be ensured.
* There is no need of hospitalization.
*No anesthesia is required.
* If the fetus is found to be suffering from serious defects, curetting can be done.
Advantages of Sonography (ultrasound scan)
This is a very sophisticated diagnostic tool. Details of the uterus and the developing baby, including any defects and malformations, can be examined on a television-like screen. This test is not harmful either to the mother or to the baby in any way. What can the ultrasound test (sonography) during pregnancy reveal?
(1) Has conception occurred?
(2) Is the baby developing normally?
(3) Is the conception uterine or ectopic (i.e. at a site other than the uterus) ? In other words, is the baby developing in the uterus, or outside the uterus (a dangerous situation)?
(4) Is there only one child, or more than one child developing in the uterus?
(5) What is the approximate period for which the child has been developing?
(6) Is the child in the normal position for delivery, or is it in the breech or the transverse position? If it is not in the normal position, what is the reason?
(7) Is the baby a boy or a girl ?
(8) Is the baby suffering from any defect of development? This question assumes greater importance in cases where there have been cases of malformed babies in previous pregnancies, or cases of malformed babies in the nearest blood relatives of the parents, or if the mother has been taking medicines which are known to cause malformation in the baby.
(9) If there is vaginal bleeding, it becomes important to know the position of the placenta, whether the placenta is in a position which precludes normal delivery, etc.
(10) The position of the umbilical cord, any defects in-the cord, and whether it is entwined around the baby can be established.
WHAT INFORMATION, APART FROM PREGNANCY, CAN BE OBTAINED BY SONOGRAPHY?
(1) The condition of the uterus, any defects it may have, its state of development (whether it is too small or under- developed etc.) can be revealed.
(2) A tumor in the uterus or cervix can be detected.
(3) Benign or malignant (cancer) tumors in the abdomen or in the ovaries can be detected and their exact location ascertained.
(4) If the woman has not been able to conceive, the process of ovulation can be studied in detail, and appropriate measures taken.
(5) It can be ascertained whether contraceptive devices like the copper T or the silver ring are in the correct position, or whether they have become displaced. All issues related to pregnancy can be dealt with the sonography.
Pregnancy- Myths And Facts
Posted on March 14, 2012 by mark_taylor
Some Misconceptions Regarding Pregnancy And Childbirth
Pregnancy And Gender Of The Child
The birth of a male child can be ensured by taking packets of powders dispensed by experienced practitioners of quasi-medical art. Many persons in Ahmadabad and other cities of Gujarat, as well as cities in other states, who claim to have vast experience arid special knowledge, dispense packets of powders to be taken every day by a pregnant woman from the seventh week of pregnancy, with the assurance that they will give birth to a male child as a result of this course of medication. These experienced miracle workers are very careful to enjoin strictly that there should not be a single lapse in taking the powders regularly at stated times, which means that the powders have to be taken with absolute clockwork regularity for seven months.
Women who have been reduced to desperation by the births of girls one after another are w1lling in their ignorance to try any such nostrums, just as they would be prepared to try charms and amulets. Medical science has thoroughly established the fact that the sex of the baby gets determined at the very moment of conception, when the sperm of the man encounters and fertilizes the ovum of the woman. All the ova (eggs) of the woman carry X chromosomes, while the sperm cells carry either an X or a Y chromosome. If a sperm cell with an X chromosome happens to fertilize an ovum, the fertilized ovum will develop into a girl, while if the sperm is carrying a Y chromosome, the fertilized, ovum will develop into a boy. Thus the sex of the child has already been determined on the very first day of pregnancy, and cannot be changed subsequently.
It is clear therefore that no powders or packets are going to change the sex of the child. And it may be noted here that the sex of the child is determined not by any characteristic of the woman, but solely by the sperm cells of the man. In about fifty per cent of cases, a woman is going to give birth to a boy whether she takes any measures towards that end or not. If she has been taking such powders and the child happens to be a boy, other women are impressed by this success, and are tempted to try these powders. And if, over the long period of-seven months there occurs a single lapse in adhering strictly to the schedule of taking the powder, any failure will be attributed to this lapse on her part, rather than to the experienced prescriber of the powder. It should be clear from all this that the notion that any such powders ensures the birth of a son has absolutely no foundation in facts.
Is The Gender Of Child Heredity?
Women with many sisters are likely to have more daughters. Some young men hesitate to marry a girl who is suitable for them in every way, simply because she happens to belong to a family in which the female offsprings outnumber the males, believing that she has inherited the tendency to give birth predominantly to female children. As indicated above, the ova (eggs) of a woman are all similar, carrying only X chromosomes. The sperm cells of a man are of two types, those with X-chromosomes and those with Y chromosomes. When fertilization takes place the fertilized egg will have the genetic constitution XX or XY. A fertilized ovum with two X chromosomes develops into a girl, and one with an X and a Y chromosome develops into a boy. Thus the sex of the offspring depends on the type of sperm cell fertilizing the ovum, the ova of women having the same genetic constitution. There is therefore no truth in the belief that a woman with many sisters will give birth predominantly to girls.
PREGNANCY AND LABOR PAINS
Labor pains are unendurable. Some people are apt to have a very exaggerated idea of the sufferings undergone by women at the time of delivery. If the mother-to-be has a narrow pelvis, or the child is a little too robust, or the labour is protracted because of other similar reasons, or if the woman just happens to be afraid of pain, she may say without giving serious thought to the matter, Doctor Saheb, why go through all this trouble? Better operate and lift the baby out. All this combines to give the impression that delivery is an extremely painful experience.
There is a saying prevalent among our people that only a woman who has given birth is capable of understanding the travails of labour. If labour pains were as severe as they are made out to be, how many women would be prepared to undergo the experience a second time? It is true that the uterine contractions are extremely severe. Muscles and skin may tear under the tensions created during the process of delivery. In spite of all this, all mothers concede that these pains are within the limits of endurance, and frequently they are very mild. Every woman has a natural and intense desire to attain motherhood, which is considered an invaluable experience of life. Moreover, the woman has prepared herself mentally to endure the labour pains.
Consequently most women-bear the pains without screaming or crying, in many cases managing to smile cheerfully, and they even sit up on the delivery table regardless of the pain to obtain a glimpse of the baby. Moreover, to-day delivery has been rendered a very easy and straight forward process, what with pre-natal treatment, exercises, medical supervision, instruction in matters relating to pregnancy and childbirth, as well as all the modern facilities and methods of alleviating pain. Pregnancy and delivery has therefore become a truly thrilling and memorable event in the life of a woman.
Tips For Care During Pregnancy
Posted on March 13, 2012 by mark_taylor
Some Useful Suggestions For Pregnancy Care
Here is the list of dos and Dons while Pregnancy.
Tips For Pregnancy
( 1 ) Visit your doctor regularly. Give him complete details of any developments or problems that have arisen in pregnancy after your previous visit.
( 2 ) Consult your doctor about any bleeding. (Hemorrhage), backache, pains accompanying urination, excessive itching (purities) and such other ailments, without delay.
( 3 ) Avoid eating clay, starch, plaster, brick powder and other inedible materials.
( 4) Do not lift heavy loads, or do anything requiring excessive exertion.
( 5 ) Arrange to sleep for at least eight hours at night, and for two hours in the day time.
( 6 ) Do not take fattening foods. This point is discussed in detail in previous articles.
( 7 ) Guard against constipation. Drink plenty of water for easy digestion during pregnancy.
( 8 ) Eat liberal quantities of pulses, fresh fruits and vegetables. Take these foods in moderate quantities four or five times a day, rather than in two or three heavy meals.
( 9 ) Whenever you feel tired, drop whatever you are doing, and rest for some time.
(10) Form the habit of taking exercise regularly. But stop exercising as soon as you feel fatigued.
(11) Sleep on your back in a supine position, with the legs supported at a little higher level than the rest of the body, or sleep lying on your side, with the upper leg resting on a cushion.
(12). Dress in loose-fitting clothes that do not impede free movement.
(13) Wear a well-fitting brassiere (bra).
(14) Do not use high-heeled shoes, sandals, or chappals.
(15) Avoid sexual intercourse during the last four weeks.
(16) Avoid excessive use of medication.
(17) Do not ride bicycles or horses after the fourth month of pregnancy.
(18) Do not consent to any therapy or tests that involve exposure to X rays.
(I 9) Bathe in a tub. Clean each part of the body thoroughly by scrubbing it well. Exercise care while moving in the bath room to ensure that you do not slip,
(20) Clean the genitals regularly with a stream of warm water.
(21) Take care to avoid all types of infections.
(22) Always sit in an erect position, with the back straight, not in a slouching position.
(23) Maintain a cheerful mood, and spend your time in an atmosphere conducive to mental peace.
(24) Do not be alarmed if you perspire freely.
(25) Brush your teeth well every morning and evening.
(26) If you wear contact lenses, take particular care to remove them when labour sets in.
(27) Avoid long journeys. If a long journey does become necessary, arrange to have enough space to get up and stand, and if possible, to walk about a little, every two hours to avoid complications in pregnancy.
Why Unsual Delivery Of Baby?
Posted on March 12, 2012 by mark_taylor
Unusual Delivery Of The Baby And Reasons For Them
A baby normally weighs about three kilograms, i.e. about six and a half pounds, at the time of its birth. Its height is about 50 centimeters (20 inches). The head measures about 32.5 centimeters (13 inches) in circumference. Its pulse rate is 120 to 140 per minute, the rate of respiration about 44 per minute, and the blood pressure 60-80/50.The birth should normally occur in 259 to 287 days from conception.
A baby that falls short of any of these norms is considered to be a premature baby in the medical sense. Ordinarily if labor sets in at full term, there is no reason for interfering with the normal progress of the delivery in any way. If, however, there are any complications, admission to a hospital must be sought immediately. Unusual Deliveries Deliveries fail to conform to the normal pattern in about five per cent cases.
Types Of Unusual Delivery
Some types of unusual deliveries are described here. Normally the baby should be in the head-down position in the uterus at the time of delivery. If it is in the upright position, so that its buttocks are lower- most, the position is known as breech presentation.
(1) Breech Delivery (Breech Presentation): Breech deliveries are no longer considered as involving any particular problems. However, such deliveries are certainly more difficult than the normal ones. It would be advisable to have the baby delivered in a hospital if it is in such a breech position. In a breech delivery, as the head of the baby would be the last to emerge, if there are any factors that interfere with the supply of oxygen to the baby, its survival may be endangered. If the baby happens to have a head larger than normal, or if it is facing the wrong way, the delivery is likely to be more difficult. In all such cases, any undue haste in delivering the baby would be likely to cause harm to the baby.
(2) Cephalic Delivery: In such deliveries, the head of the baby emerges very slowly from the uterus. As the baby descends, the shape of its head keeps changing because of various pressures on the as yet soft bones of the skull in its passage through the pelvis. The changes in shape help it to slide outwards more easily. Such deliveries tend to progress slowly, and labour may last for several hours.
( 3 ) Twins: If two babies develop simultaneously in the womb, they are said to be twins. There are two types of twins: identical twins, and fraternal twins. Identical twins are those that develop from the same fertilized ovum, which has divided into two in a very early phase of development. They are not only similar, they are replicas of one another: hence the term identical twins. Fraternal twins develop from separate ova which have been independently fertilized, and so generally their similarities and dissimilarities are no less or greater than those of any brothers or sisters.
(4) Episiotomy: This is a surgical procedure that becomes necessary when the head of the baby is larger than the maximum dilatation possible for the muscles of the vagina, so that delivery gets obstructed. The procedure consists in making an incision in the perineum between the vaginal opening and the anus, generally towards one side, either left or right. The intention Is to widen the passage and thus facilitate delivery of the baby. Of course, if an episiotomy is decided upon, a local anesthetic is administered first, before proceeding with the incision.
(5) Suction (Vacuum) Extraction: This method is used to expedite the second stage of delivery. At the end of the first stage, a small metal cup is applied to the head of the baby. A special device is used to create partial vacuum in the cup, so that the cup Is attached firmly to the head by the resulting suction. Now by pulling on the cup, the baby is gradually eased out. One disadvantage of this method is that there is a slight swelling on the head of the baby where the cup has been attached. and the swelling takes some time to subside. The advantage is that even when the cervix has not been fully dilated. the baby can be delivered with comparative ease. without too much distress either to the mother or to the baby. No forceps are needed in this method.
(6) Forceps Delivery: When the mother cannot push with sufficient force, this method is employed for extraction of the baby though great care is required to be exercised to guard against the possibility of harming the baby. Epidural anesthesia mayor may not have been administered before forceps delivery is undertaken. .
(7) Caesarian Delivery (Caesarian Section): There was a time when Caesarian delivery was considered to be a highly risky procedure. The chances of the mother surviving such a delivery were rated very low indeed. But to-day Caesarian delivery has come to be looked upon as quite an ordinary variation of the process of delivery. There is very little risk either for the mother or for the baby in a Caesarian delivery today. The method consists in making an incision in the lower abdomen and another one in the uterus to open it up, and gently lifting the baby out of the uterus.
REASONS FOR A CAESARIAN SECTION DURING DELIVERY
Some reasons which necessitate Caesarian delivery are indicated here:
1. A cervical tumor: This may impede the process of delivery, making a Caesarian section necessary.
2. An Excessively Large Head of the Baby: If the head of the baby has become enlarged because of the presence of excessive fluids in the skull, the fluids may have to be let out by puncturing the scalp, or alternatively, delivery has to be effected by Caesarian section.
3. Protrusion of the Arm of the Baby: The arm of the baby may sometimes protrude through the cervix along with the head. In such a condition, Caesarian delivery becomes inevitable.
4. Transverse Position of the Baby: Sometimes the baby lies in a transverse position in the uterus, instead of the normal head-down position. If the baby cannot be manipulated into the normal position, it becomes necessary to affect delivery by Caesarian section. In addition to the above reasons, if the pelvic bones of the mother are too narrow, or her general condition of health is unfavorable to a normal vaginal delivery, or if she has high blood pressure, or she has previously had a Caesarian delivery, or if the baby is getting asphyxiated in the womb for some reason, Caesarian delivery must be resorted to.
(5) Rupture of the Uterus: If a previous baby has been delivered by Caesarian section for any reason such as a narrow pelvis or passage, or if there has been excessive use of a drug like Pitocin, there is a likelihood of rupture of the uterus during labour contractions. Such a condition arises more frequently in cases of women of advanced age, or woman who have had numerous deliveries, or, as mentioned above, in cases of women who have had Caesarian delivery.
Stages Of Labor and Tips To Manage The Labor Pains
Posted on March 12, 2012 by mark_taylor
The Delivery And Stages Of Labor
Every pregnant woman, especially if it is going to be her very first delivery, is apprehensive that she may not be able to judge the time of the onset of labor correctly, and that the delivery may take place suddenly, in unforeseen circumstances. But as a matter of fact these fears are unfounded.
The woman becomes aware of the imminent delivery well in time. One or more of the following three signs always herald the coming of the baby:
(1) There is a discharge of a blood-like fluid from the vagina. The discharge starts up rather suddenly.
(2) Urination is accompanied by pain in the pelvic region.
(3) There are intermittent spasms of pain in the abdomen, Otherwise described as onset of labor.
The pain is due to contractions of the uterus. Any one or more of the above signs should alert the mother-to-be to the fact that delivery is now imminent, and she, should hasten to the hospital without delay. Delivery is a process in which the baby is pushed out of the uterus by contractions and relaxations of specific muscles.
The whole period starting from the onset of labor pains to the time after delivery when the fetus-bearing organs of the mother regain their original shape and condition, can be divided into the following three stages.
The First Stage of Labor
In the first stage, the muscles of the upper part of the uterus begin their contractions. As a consequence, the cervix (the mouth of the uterus, which is circular) begins to thin out and dilate due to the pressure on the principal blood vessels of the cervix. The contractions follow each other at intervals of about five minutes. In this phase Ute cervix dilates (the circle widens) to about 3 centimeters 12 inches). Then the contractions increase in frequency, coming at every three minutes. The cervix has dilated to about 6 centimeters (21/3 inches) at about this time. As the contractions begin to recur every two minutes or so, the cervix becomes fully dilated, and normally the head of the baby begins to emerge.
The Second Stage Of Labor
The nature of the contractions of the uterus alters in this stage. The response of the mother to every contraction now is a desire to exert a force pushing the baby back. A woman who is experiencing her first delivery, and who has absolutely no information about the sequence of events during a delivery, instinctively begins to take deep breaths at the very commencement of this stage, and tends to hold her breath at every contraction. She feels the urge to defecate.
She continues to brace herself to endure the pain with every deep breath till the baby emerges completely from the uterus. As the baby slides outward through the vagina, the mother experiences and intense desire to grasp her own legs, Labor ends with the emergence of the baby from the vagina. Now the fluids in the babys mouth, nose and respiratory passages are cleaned out. After making sure that the baby is able to breathe normally, it is handed over to the mother. When the baby is thus finally placed in her arms, the mother finds her heart flooded with a sense of relief and achievement, as she feels that she has gone through a number of trials and tribulations and has finally given birth to a brand-new human being, her very own creation.
The Third Stage Of Labor
After the delivery, the contractions of the uterus cease, and its muscles, relax. After about fifteen minutes, the contractions start up again. The contractions become gradually stronger, until at last the placenta, or after- birth, is also expelled. Then the uterus retracts upwards, and gradually returns to its original condition. If this process is delayed, or if bleeding continues, an injection of mothering is given to hasten the process.
ALLEVIATION OF LABOR PAINS
Some of the methods adopted to alleviate labur pains are described here :
(I) In order that the delivery should proceed normally and the mother should be able to bear the labor pains without too much distress, the help of a doctor, a motivated nurse or a trained and experienced female attendant, such as a midwife. should be made available.
(2) Hypnotisms also being-used these days to reduce the pain. The method has proved very successful in cases of highly suggestible women.
(3) Recently there have been claims of successful relief of labor pains with the help of acupuncture.
(4) An injection of ephedrine can be used to relax the muscles of the uterus, thus lessening the pain.
(5) The woman in labor is made to breathe a mixture of nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and oxygen. This reduces sensitivity to the pain. A rubber mask has to be used over the mouth and hose of the woman for administering the gases.
(6) An epidural injection of an anesthetic can also be used for the purpose. This makes a painless labor and delivery possible.
Three Important Tests During Pregnancy
Posted on March 9, 2012 by mark_taylor
Some Special Tests For Pregnancy
Some special tests are usually carried out during pregnancy, which reveal the state of health of both the baby developing in the womb, and the mother-to-be. Some of the more important tests are discussed here.
1st Test For Pregnancy- Blood Tests
Various tests are carried out on the blood of the mother to ascertain her blood group, the amount of hemoglobin in her blood, her powers of resistance against various viruses, etc., and to determine whether she is suffering from a serious disease such as syphilis.
Hemoglobin: It is essential to keep tabs on the amount of hemoglobin in the blood of the expectant mother throughout the period of pregnancy. Hemoglobin is the active substance in the red blood corpuscles (erythrocytes) which performs the important function of carrying oxygen to all the cells of the body. The amount of hemoglobin in the blood therefore determines the capacity of blood to absorb oxygen, and a low proportion of hemoglobin is the diagnostic indication of anemia. It is not possible for a baby to develop normally in the womb of anemic women, i.e. one with a low proportion of hemoglobin in the blood. A timely diagnosis of anemia in the initial stages of pregnancy would make it possible to restore the correct concentration of hemoglobin in the blood of the expectant mother by the relatively simple expedient of giving her tablets containing organic iron. The level of hemoglobin in the blood of a pregnant woman should not be allowed to fall below 70%.
Resistance to Viral Infections: It is important to ascertain the powers of resistance of the mother-to-be to various viruses, so that treatment can be instituted in time if necessary. Failure to do so may prove hazardous for the baby. Infection with the virus of Rubella (German measles) can have a greatly adverse effect on the baby. If the mother contracts this disease in the first three months of pregnancy, the effects (malformation, deafness, blindness, heart disease, etc.) on the baby can be serious enough to make termination of the pregnancy mandatory. It is therefore advisable to make sure before conception whether the woman intending to have a baby has a natural immunity to the disease, or if not, whether she has had the vaccine administered to her. In any case, no woman should contemplate conception unless she is either naturally immune, or has been immunized, against this disease, Rubella. It is a simple matter for a doctor to determine-whether she is immune or not by testing her blood, If a woman is not naturally immune to the virus, all she has to do to acquire such immunity is to take the vaccine. But she should take care to ensure that she does not conceive for at least three months after she has been immunized.
Syphilis: Whether the woman has syphilis, or has had syphilis, in the past, is ascertained during the very first blood test. Necessary treatment to control infection is undertaken immediately on detection of the disease, so as to safeguard the baby against the disease.
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. If the condition persists continuously for two months or so, it becomes necessary to keep a watch on developments. If the hypertension persists for even longer periods, the mother-to-be must seek admission to a hospital for intensive treatment. In many cases the hypertension is caused by nothing more serious than worry; so she would be well advised to avoid undue anxiety, and take complete rest: This by itself may be sufficient to bring down the blood pressure.
Rhesus Blood Group: The blood of every human being is either Rhesus positive (Rh +) or Rhesus negative (Rh-). The Rhesus group of a woman should be ascertained in the very beginning of the first pregnancy, if not even earlier. Whether the blood contains antibodies to Rhesus positive blood cells should also be determined at the same time. The antibodies can cause serious harm to the baby in certain cases. The interactions are complicated and the matter is best left to the doctor.
Test for Spina Bifida: The presence of alpha feto-protein in the blood is ascertained in this test which can be carried out only after the fetus has been developing for 16 weeks in the womb. A positive result in this test would indicate the possibility of spina bifida, a condition in which the spine of the child has not developed fully, and so has failed to protect the spinal cord a part of the cord remaining exposed on the surface of the skin. If such a possibility is indicated, a test known as amniocentesis is recommended in order to assess the situation properly. In addition, an ultrasound scan (sonography) is also used to determine whether the spinal cord of the baby is developing normally.
2nd Tests For Pregnancy- Urine Tests
These tests are carried out to determine the amounts of sugar and proteins- in the urine. The urine passed early in the morning immediately on getting up from bed, before taking any food or drink, is to be taken for these, tests, as it is more concentrated, and reflects the proportions of these substances in the blood more accurately.
Sugar in the Urine: The proportion of sugar in the urine of a pregnant woman tends to keep changing. If these changes are very rapid, or if the proportion of sugar is found to be consistently high, there is a possibility of her having diabetes. In such a case measures have to be taken to ensure that the development of the baby proceeds normally without any deficiency or defect.
Proteins in the Urine: A positive test for proteins in the urine in the primary stages of pregnancy is Indicative of infection in the urinary system. A positive test in the second stage indicates a condition known as toxemia, in which poisonous substances and wastes present in the blood of the mother may infiltrate into the developing body of the baby. The condition is amenable to treatment, and preventive action may also be taken if necessary.
Third Tests For Pregnancy on the Uterus
Amniocentesis: This test is usually carried out in the case of women-who have conceived at an advanced age, to detect Downs syndrome (mongolism), genetically linked disorders, etc. In the uterus, the baby floats in a fluid known as the amniotic fluid. Some of this fluid is withdrawn by means of an injection syringe, and the cells in it are tested. The test can usually be carried out only after 16 weeks from the last menstrual period. All the limbs of the baby have been formed by this time, in the ultrasound scan, which is a necessary preliminary to amniocentesis; the doctor can discern all the limbs of the baby, and even its movements, such as sucking the thumb. The sex of the baby can therefore be ascertained at this stage during the ultras9nic scan. The sex of the baby can be determined by amniocentesis too.
Ultrasound Scan (Sonography): If the mother-to-be is over 35 years of age, and if she and her husband are smokers, an ultrasound scan is absolutely necessary, as out of every 1000 births in such cases, 46 babies have been found to be afflicted with serious congenital heart disease. Ultrasound scans must be carried out in such cases once in the eighth or ninth week, once in the fifteenth or sixteenth week, and once in the thirty-sixth week of pregnancy. The sex of the baby can be determined by Sonography.
Chronic Biopsy: Doctors and research workers all over the world have constantly been looking for ways and means to ensure that any baby that is born should be perfectly healthy and free from all malformations and congenital defects. Accordingly they have evolved numerous testing procedures, so that congenital defects can be detected and eliminated before birth as far as possible. If the defects are serious and incurable, abortion is recommended. Chronic biopsy is one such testing procedure that has been evolved recently. The test can be performed in the 10th to 12th weeks of pregnancy. In this test a thin tube or hollow needle is introduced into the uterus, and a few of the cells of the baby which have been discarded and are floating in the amniotic fluid are extracted. These cells are then cultured in vitro by special methods, and are subjected to various tests.
CHRONIC BIOPSY CAN ALSO BE USED TO ASCERTAIN THE SEX OF THE BABY DURING PREGNANCY- BUT BANNED BY MANY GOVERNMENT.
Facts About Medication During Pregnancy
Posted on March 9, 2012 by mark_taylor
Medication Good Or Bad During Pregnancy?
Any medicine taken by a pregnant woman finds its way into the body of the baby within an hour. The limbs of the baby are in the process of formation during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. Foreign substances like drugs introduced into the system during this period may disturb this process of development and growth. Most, if not all, congenital defects of babies are traceable to the ingestion of excessive amounts of powerful toxic drugs.
Medication For Pregnancy
There are numerous instance son records of babies with malformation of limbs and various other defects of development, born to mothers who had been taking drugs like thalidomide (a sedative), androgens, synthetic progesterones and drugs for the treatment of cancer, during the period of their pregnancies. That is precisely why it is desirable for the expectant mother to avoid taking any medicines, With the exception of vitamins, minerals or insulin, unless of course there are compelling reasons to the contrary. If the mother-to-be is a diabetic, it becomes necessary to control the amount of sugar in her blood with the help of insulin. Usually tablets containing organic iron are also given to a pregnant woman to prevent anemia.
The tablets are usually formulated specifically for women in this condition, and are therefore comparatively safe. Often other elements required in minor proportions, such as copper, manganese, magnesium and cobalt are also included in the formulation of such tablets. Tablets of folic acid are also prescribed for the pregnant woman at her very first visit to the doctor, and she is usually required to take these tablets throughout the duration of her pregnancy. Calcium formulations are administered to relieve muscular pain. All these substances are enzymes and. food supplements rather than drugs or medicines, and so are considered relatively safe. Acetaminophen is administered to pregnant women in place of aspirin as an analgesic, but even this drug is not entirely harmless. It has a deleterious effect on the liver and kidneys; and should be taken only if it becomes absolutely necessary.
Drug Quantities During Pregnancy
Immoderate quantities of drugs affecting nerves, such as barbiturates, amphetamines and opium preparations are dangerous for the baby, as they may impede growth. and even lead to a reduction in the weight of the baby. Medication these days, an increasing tendency towards inordinate and reckless use of drugs and medicines is apparent every- where. The expectant mother should exercise greater discretion, and take only such medicines as have been prescribed by a qualified doctor, and only in the prescribed quantities. Be Your Own Doctor With Acupressure Dr. D. R. Gala, Dr. Dhiren Gala.
ACUPRESSURE DURING PREGNANCY
Man can enjoy his life only if he has sound body and sound mind. Many therapies have been developed to keep mans body and mind healthy. Among them Acupressure has been proved to be a very efficacious and harmless therapy. This therapy has roused much curiosity and interest not only among people but also among doctors practicing orthodox medicine.
In Acupressure therapy, treatment is given by pressing specific points laying on the surface of the body i.e. the skin. This book explains the method of treatment through numerous photographs and figures. The explanation is so simple and lucid that even a layman can understand it. Many a disease can be prevented or cured through acupressure treatment. The therapy is worth-applying in order to do away with medicines. as most of the medicines have harmful side-effects. It has a great role while pregnancy as the medication has to be minimum.
Benefits Of Exercises During Pregnancy
Posted on March 7, 2012 by mark_taylor
Exercises For Pregnancy
As the baby develops in the womb, the abdomen of the expectant mother progressively bulges foreword. The increasing load in the abdomen creates tension in the muscles of the back and the waist. It is this tension that is responsible for the usual bolt-upright appearance. To enable the mother to carry the additional weight without strain, it is necessary to strengthen these muscles. The cartilage between the bones in the joints and the tendons attaching the muscles to the bones tend to soften after the delivery. Strengthening the muscles will help to maintain the elasticity and strength of these connective tissues, and minimize the softening.
Exercises have been devised to strengthen the muscles that are involved, thus reducing the possibility of the consequent pain. Some exercises considered indispensable for toning up the muscles of the abdomen, back and waist are described here. The mother-to-be must start performing these exercises just as soon as she learns that she is pregnant. She would of course be well advised to observe moderation in the matter, taking care that the quantum or the pace of the exercises should not be such as to cause undue fatigue. The benefits of these exercises will become apparent in the later stages of pregnancy when the abdomen begins to sag forward.
Strengthening Exercises During Pregnancy
(1) Exercise for Strengthening the Waist Muscles:
This is an exercise meant for the initial stages of pregnancy. Stand with the two feet slightly apart. Place the palms on the waist. Without shifting the feet, turn the upper torso 90 degrees to the right, and then to the left. Repeat ten times for each side alternately.
(2) Exercise for Strengthening the Muscles of the Back and the Waist:
Stand with the two feet planted slightly apart. Open the palms bend sideways to the right, keeping the left hand raised vertically upwards and try to touch the right leg at as Iowa point as possible with the right hand. Return to the initial position. Perform the same movement on the left. Repeat ten times for each side alternately.
(3) Exercise for Strengthening the Abdomen:
Kneel on the floor. with the knees slightly apart. Raise the-arms vertically upwards. Now turn on your waist towards the right and touch the right foot with the left hand and the left foot with the right hand. Return to the initial position. Perform the same movements towards the left. Repeat ten times for each side alternately.
(4) Exercise for Strengthening the Abdomen:
Kneel down. with the knees slightly apart and place your: palms on the floor, assuming an all-fours position. Now, maintaining your balance and keeping the back straight, raise the right arm and the left leg till they are level with your back. Return to the initial position. Perform the same movement with the left arm and the right leg. Repeat ten times for each side alternately.
(5) Exercise for Strengthening the Back:
Lie flat, face up. on the floor. Bend the legs at the knees, thus bringing the feet nearer to the torso. Press down with one foot so as to raise the back off the floor. Maintain this position for six seconds. Return to the initial position. Now do the same with the other Foot. Now press down with both feet simultaneously so as to raise the back off the floor. Maintain this position for six seconds. Return to the initial position. Repeat the whole sequence ten times.
(6) Exercise for Relieving Backache:
Lie down flat, face up, on the floor. Bend the legs at the knees. Now raise the back off the floor, with arms extended forwards and reach for the knees. Keeping the back thus raised, impart a rotator motion to the hips. Keep this up for six seconds, without lowering the back. Let yourself down gently to the initial position. Repeat the entire sequence of movements ten times.
(7) Exercise for Relieving Backache:
Kneel on the floor, and bend forward, assuming an all-fours position. Supporting yourself on the palms placed directly beneath the shoulders, and on the toes of the feet, raises the- knees off the floor. Raise the back, keeping the head down. Do not let the back sag down. Maintain this position for six seconds. Return to the all-fours position. Repeat the sequence of movements six times.
Sit on a flat chair with a straight upright back. Place the palms on the knees. Now push the elbows outwards, without shifting the palms. This will put the abdominal muscles under tension. Maintain the tension for six seconds, and then relax slowly. Repeat ten times.
The pregnant woman will be benefited greatly by choosing from among these exercises those that she feels to be necessary and convenient for herself and performing them regularly. Exercises for Relieving Backache and for Controlling Excessive Bulging of the Abdomen: Most pregnant women suffer from backache, especially in the lower regions of the spine. Some of them develop this complaint after delivery. The exercises described here will prove beneficial in such cases, The exercises should be per- 2/
The Pregnancy and Baby-Care Book formed five times a day, and then the frequency should be gradually increased to 20 a day.
MORE EXERCISES FOR PREGNANCY
(1) Stand up straight in a doorway 2i to 3 feet wide, with the buttocks against one side of the door frame. Keep the ankles 4 inches apart. Press against the frame with the back. Tense up the muscles of the buttocks and the abdomen, which will have the effect of bending the legs a little at the knees, and of inclining the pelvis forewords. Now press against the door frame-behind you with the nape, and push against the-Jamb of the door facing you with the palms. Straighten the legs at the knees. Then relax all the muscles. Repeat ten times.
(2) Lie down face up on the floor. Bend the knees and let the soles of the feet rest flat on the floor. Raise one leg, grasp the knee, and pull it as near to the chest as you can. Hold this position for 5 seconds and resume the initial position. Repeat with the other leg, Repeat the exercise ten times for each side.
(3) Lie down face up on the floor. Bend the knees and let the soles of the feet rest flat on the floor. Bend the arms at the elbows and place them under the head. Tighten the muscles of the waist and the abdomen in such a way that the lower part of the back presses on the floor. Hold the position for five seconds and relax all muscles. Repeat the exercise ten times.
(4 ) Lie down face up on the floor Bend the knees and let the soles of the feet rest flat on the floor, raise the legs, grasp both the knees with your hands and pull them as near to the chest as you can. Hold the position for five seconds and resume the initial position. Straighten the legs. Repeat the whole sequence of movements ten times.These Exercises will help mother fight various troubles of pregnancy.
Best Diet Plans During Pregnancy
Posted on March 6, 2012 by mark_taylor
Diet For Pregnancy
It is the aspiration of every mother-to-be to give birth to a perfectly healthy baby. In order to fulfill this aspiration, it is essential for her to safeguard her own health too. The development of the baby in the womb depends to a large extent on the diet of the mother. The expectant mother should ensure that her diet is adequate both in quality and quantity to satisfy .the nutritional requirements of the baby as well as those of her own body. For maintenance of health and strength during the period of pregnancy, a woman needs additional quantities of proteins, iron, calcium and vitamins of the B group; Thus her requirements exceed the normal requirements of the female body. She should take care to include cereals, pulses, leafy vegetables, milk and milk products, as well as seasonal fruits in her daily diet. The quantity of food should be appropriate for the kind of work she is required to do, those who have to do more physical work requiring proportionately greater quantities of energy-giving foods.
Food To Be Avoided During Pregnancy
The pregnant woman should avoid highly spiced foods. She should drink plenty of water. Carrots, radishes, cucumbers, ripe tomatoes and such other sources of vitamins should figure prominently in her daily diet. She should divide her daily intake of food into moderate helpings taken at short intervals rather than stuffing up the stomach in two or three main meals. An increase of 10 to 12 kg in weight during the course of pregnancy is normal, but the increase in any one-month should amount to no more than 1 or 11/4 kg. If she puts on weight at a faster rate than this it may prove hazardous for both herself and her baby. In order to satisfy herself that the rate of gain in weight continues to remain within the desirable limits, she should get her weight checked every fortnight or so.
It is very common in our country for pregnant women to be suffering from anemia. One of the symptoms of anemia is that even light exertion makes one tired. The lips tongue and the undersides of the eyelids appear pale. Anemia can create a number of problems at the time of delivery. It is essential therefore to take measures to counter it at an early stage. The expectant mother should therefore take plenty of whole meal preparations, sprouted pulses, green leafy vegetables, gur (jaggery), preparations of peanuts and sea same, and such other foods containing high proportions of organic iron. She should also take medicinal preparations containing iron and folic acid. The Food and Nutrition Board recommends that a pregnant woman should have 300 additional calories every day.
Calories Intake During Pregnancy
The body has a constant need of calories, and if foods with sufficiently high calorific values are not taken, the body is forced to carry on its metabolic activities by consuming proteins. The real function of proteins is maintenance and development of the tissues of the body, which would be impeded (if her diet is lacking in calories) by excessive consumption of proteins in making up a deficiency of calories in the foods. A diet supplying 2100 calories per day is considered quite adequate for supplying the energy requirements of a woman. But a pregnant woman needs greater quantities of food, for the nutritional requirements of the developing baby in addition to those of her own body. The following table shows the additional- amount of energy as well as additional quantities of vitamins, and minerals required by a pregnant woman, over and above the normal requirements of a woman.
Proteins: Proteins are important for the development of The uterus and the breasts of the expectant mother, and, of course, for the development of the baby itself. The volume of blood in the body of the pregnant woman increases by a large percentage. This is also a reason for enhanced requirements of proteins. The total additional requirements of proteins during the last six months of pregnancy amount to about 1 kilogram. Thus 50 to 60 grammas of proteins must be supplied to the expectant mother every day during this period, through foods such as milk and milk products, peanuts, pulses, dry fruits. Cheese, meat, fish, eggs, etc.
Vitamins: The requirements of vitamins and minerals increase during pregnancy. These should be supplied through the diet. Adequate quantities of vitamins are available in green leafy vegetables, sprouted pulses, fresh fruit, milk, meat, eggs, fish, etc. The diet therefore should be a judicious combination of such foods; this will additionally supply the requisite quantities of proteins and sufficient calories as well.
Folic Acid: A deficiency of this ingredient in the food may result in a steep rise in the blood pressure and inflammation of the internal lining of the uterus. Vomiting can be controlled and the megaloblastic type of anemia can be prevented, by the administration of folic acid. This would be of especial benefit if more than one baby is developing in the womb. Folic acid is generally not available in foods in quantities required for making up its deficiency, and medication may be the only satisfactory alternative in case of deficiency.
Iron: During pregnancy there is a very great increase in the requirement of iron. Ordinarily the expectant mother should get 10 mg of iron over and above the normal supply, but if she has anemia, or if iron is being lost in large quantities through various processes, she may have to take tablets or capsules supplying as much as 200 mg of iron per day. Of course, no such tablets are required during the first four months, as the requirements of iron during this period are generally rather low.
It is better if the additional quantities of iron are taken at night, as the intestines are then able to continue to function properly. Foods containing iron include methi (fenugreek) mint, other green leafy vegetables, sea same seeds, millets, grams, moong (green grams), urad (black grams), masoor dal (lentils), dried peas and other pulses, soyabeans, dates, mangoes, livers of animals and eggs. Iron tablets with folic acid are supplied free to an expectant mother from all family planning centers and government hospitals.
Calcium: This element helps in the development of the baby in the womb. As calcium is an essential constituent of bones, calcium deficiency results in the bones of the baby remaining weak. Because calcium will have to be supplied to the baby from the mothers stocks, her bones, too, will get weakened. The overall development of the baby also suffers. Adequate quantities of calcium are available in foods like milk and milk products, pulses, butter, cheese, meat, soup, methi (fenugreek), drumstick leaves (horse radish, or moringa), beet roots, figs, grapes, watermelons, sea same seeds, urad (black grams), millets, etc.
Sodium: A deficiency of this element in the body is rare, occurring only if diuretic medicines inducing urination are taken in excess, or one is required to take foods without salt. All foods containing salts supply this element in sufficient quantities. Requisite amounts of sodium for our normal needs can be supplied by common salt, milk, beetroots, carrots, radishes, phanasi (French bean pods), eggs, meat and fish.
Potassium: Excessive and prolonged vomiting or excessive dosages of diuretic medicines may cause potassium deficiency in a pregnant woman, indicated chiefly by giddiness. A balanced diet generally supplies all the potassium that is needed. Fresh fruits, milk, garlic, radishes potatoes and meat contain abundant potassium.
Fluorine: Sodium fluoride strengthens the teeth of the baby. An expectant mother should therefore take about 2 milligrams of sodium fluoride every day. Fluorine is present in sufficient quantities in common salt, milk, carrots, apricots, beets, phanasi (French bean pods), potatoes, spinach, cabbages, tomatoes, bananas, dates, eggs, meat and salt-water fishes.
Iodine: Foods containing iodine are necessary to prevent the essential elements present in the b09Y of the expectant mother from being lost in urine through the kidneys. A deficiency in this element leads to mental retardation and other allied defects in the baby. The element is present in sea foods and green leafy vegetables.
Zinc: Zinc deficiency results in loss of appetite. This leads to reduced intake of food, with consequent retardation in the development of the baby, delay in the healing of cuts and wounds, skin diseases and underdevelopment of the body of the baby. Zinc deficiency should be made up by appropriate medication.
DAILY DIET FOR THE EXPECTANT WOMAN DURING PREGNANCY
The expectant mother may select two or three items from the following list for breakfast : Fruits, fruit juice, pulses, meat, eggs; cheese, bread or toast with butter, milk, tea or coffee.
She may select four or five items from the following list for the mid-day meal : Rice, dal (pulse soup), vegetables (cooked or raw), chapattis, bread, milk, fruits, meat, eggs fish, cheese, chicken, mineral waters, etc.
She may select four or five items from the following list: Khichdi, vegetables, bread, milk, fruits, meat, eggs, fish, cheese, chicken, etc. She may take appropriate amounts of milk, dry fruits, fresh fruits, curds or biscuits in between these main meals, but only if she feels really hungry.
Of course, it must be borne in mind that excessive intake of food results in obesity, which can cause problems, even hazards, for the mother-to-be as well as for the baby. Details about the permissible increase in weight during pregnancy have been given in next articles.
Reference from: http://lifepregnancy.com/
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